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The working materials in the NRDC Document Bank are listed in reverse chronological order. For additional policy materials including reports and issue papers, see the Issues section of the main NRDC site.

Cheaper and Cleaner: Using the Clean Air Act to Sharply Reduce Carbon Pollution from Existing Power Plants, Delivering Health, Environmental and Economic Benefits

NRDC Document on using the Clean Air Act to reduce carbon pollution from existing power plants, delivering health, environmental and economic benefits (March 2014 update).

NRDC Letter Opposing "Secret Science" Bill in House Hearing

In a letter to the House Science Committee, NRDC Clean Air Director, John Walke offers his views in opposition to the “Secret Science Reform Act of 2014”. This draft legislation would effectively amend numerous environmental statutes in a manner that would obstruct the development and implementation of health and environmental safeguards (February 11, 2014).

Moving California Forward: Zero and Low-Emissions Freight Pathways - Executive Summary

The California Cleaner Freight Coalition -- including NRDC and at least 20 other organizations working towards transformational changes to the freight transportation system in California to protect the public's health, clean the environment, and promote social justice and equity -- commissioned this report to compare conventional diesel-based transportation to lower emission and advanced technology alternatives for both shorter and longer trips. The analysis helps answer a key question for those planning the future of the state's freight system: what are the alternatives to conventional diesel vehicles that offer the greatest air quality, health and climate benefits, measured in reduced emissions of particulate matter (PM2.5), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and greenhouse gases (GHG)?

Moving California Forward: Zero and Low-Emission Goods Movement Pathways - Technical Appendix

Technical Appendix ("Modeling Assumptions for Freight Pathway Components") for the report Moving California Forward: Zero and Low-Emission Goods Movement Pathways, commissioned by the California Cleaner Freight Coalition -- including NRDC and at least 20 other organizations working towards transformational changes to the freight transportation system in California to protect the public's health, clean the environment, and promote social justice and equity -- to compare conventional diesel-based transportation to lower emission and advanced technology alternatives for both shorter and longer trips. The analysis helps answer a key question for those planning the future of the state's freight system: what are the alternatives to conventional diesel vehicles that offer the greatest air quality, health and climate benefits, measured in reduced emissions of particulate matter (PM2.5), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and greenhouse gases (GHG)?

Moving California Forward: Zero and Low-Emission Goods Movement Pathways - Full Report

The California Cleaner Freight Coalition -- including NRDC and at least 20 other organizations working towards transformational changes to the freight transportation system in California to protect the public's health, clean the environment, and promote social justice and equity -- commissioned this report to compare conventional diesel-based transportation to lower emission and advanced technology alternatives for both shorter and longer trips. The analysis helps answer a key question for those planning the future of the state's freight system: what are the alternatives to conventional diesel vehicles that offer the greatest air quality, health and climate benefits, measured in reduced emissions of particulate matter (PM2.5), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and greenhouse gases (GHG)?

Exide Comment Letter and Supplemental Exide Comment Letter

A comment letter and a supplemental comment letter submitted by NRDC and Communities for a Better Environment regarding the proposed SCAQMD Amended Rule 1420.1 and Exide Technologies, Inc., a lead-recycling facility in Vernon, CA.

Letter Opposing the Polluter Protection Act, 11/13/13

Letter signed by NRDC and 78 other environmental organizations urging Congress to oppose Congressman Whitfield and Senator Manchin’s Polluter Protection Act, submitted November 13, 2013.

Poll on Carbon Pollution from Power Plants, November 2013

Results from polling in four states on proposed regulation of carbon pollution from power plants.

Environmental Policy for the Hawaiian Electric Company's Procurement of Biodiesel from Sustainably Produced Feedstock

Revised Environmental Policy for the Hawaiian Electric Company's Procurement of Biodiesel from Sustainably Produced Feedstock. Prepared by Hawaiian Electric Company and the Natural Resources Defense Council. AUGUST 2007 (Revised August 2013)

Complaint challenging permit to raise the Bayonne Bridge

Complaint filed by NRDC on July 31, 2013, in its case against the U.S. Coast Guard and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, challenging the issuance of a permit amendment allowing the Port to raise the Bayonne Bridge, in violation of the National Environmental Policy Act.

Voters’ Views On The President’s Climate And Carbon Pollution Plan

Key findings from nationwide survey among 808 registered voters reached on landline and cell phones July 1 – 7, 2013.

Memo from Hart Research / Chesapeake Beach Consulting to NRDC Key Findings From Survey On Carbon Pollution And Climate Change

A memo summarizing key findings of a poll of 808 registered voters across the country about President Obama’s climate announcement in June. The poll was conducted from July 1 to 7, 2013, by Hart Research, in conjunction with Chesapeake Beach Consulting.

Prevent the Sequester to Protect Our Air, Water, Wildlife and Public Lands: Funding Cuts Will Threaten Jobs, Recreation, and Public Health

An analysis of budget sequestration impacts to the environment and natural resources authored by the Natural Resources Defense Council, World Wildlife Fund, The Wilderness Society, American Forests, National Parks Conservation Foundation, Marine Conservation Institute, and Defenders of Wildlife.

China Shipping Appellate Opinion

Court of Appeal, Second District, Division 4, California Opinion in NRDC v City of Los Angeles re China Shipping terminal ordering the Port to stop all construction and operation of the project until it complied with CEQA.

AEG Stadium Comment Letter

NRDC Comments on Convention and Event Center Project Draft Environmental Impact Report (DEIR), State Clearinghouse No. 2011031049, sent May 21, 2012.

Dec. 13, 2011 Letter from 21 Scientists and Physicians to President Barack Obama regarding broad scientific consensus in support for Mercury and Air Toxics Standards for power plants.

This letter highlights the dangers of mercury pollution, in particular its impacts on neurological development in fetuses and young children, and encourages the president to go forward with strong standards to limit mercury from power plants.  Power plants are the largest industrial source of mercury in the United States.

Oppose H.R. 2250 and S.1392 Fact Sheet

These fact sheets explain how these bills would significantly delay and weaken clean-up of toxic air pollution from industrial boilers and incinerators. These facilities are the nation’s second largest industrial source of mercury, a dangerous neurotoxin that harms children’s developing brains.

Complaint Filed Against Union Pacific Corporation, Burlington Northern Santa Fe, LLC, and BNSF Railway Company, October 18, 2011

Complaint in Center for Community Action & Environmental Justice et al. v. Union Pacific Corporation et al. under federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

New National and State Polling Reveals Strong Disapproval for President Obama’s Smog Rule Delay, Strong Unfavorable Ratings for Congress’ Assault on Clean Air Act

President Obama’s decision to delay new public health standards for ozone and smog pollution may have pleased big business, but it but it sorely disappointed key demographic groups, including Latinos and women in nine key 2012 battleground states, according to a new national poll. In addition, respondents nationally and in key states say they want Congress to end its legislative assault on the Clean Air Act.

Barrasso Amendment (No.627) to China Currency Act (S.1619)

An amendment (No.627) to the China Currency Act (S.1619), introduced by Sen. Barrasso (R-WY) that would roll back toxic air pollution standards for cement plants.

CRS Report: EPA’s Boiler MACT: Controlling Emissions of Hazardous Air Pollutants

The cement industry, incinerator operators and companies that use boilers for heat and power, have criticized the EPA rules as job-killers, this January 2011 study by the independent Congressional Research Service (CRS) found "little credence" to such transparently self-serving warnings.

TRAIN Act Fact Sheet

This fact sheet describes the most harmful provisions of the TRAIN Act (H.R. 2401). It also summarizes the devastating human health impacts this Act would incur.

How the TRAIN Act Has Changed Since Its Introduction

This fact sheet explains how the TRAIN Act (H.R. 2401) has become a much more deadly bill after being amended in Full Committee. While TRAIN, as originally introduced, merely required a committee to study EPA rules, the version the House is scheduled to vote on could permanently block two clean air safeguards—the Mercury and Air Toxics standards, which limit mercury and other toxic air pollution, and the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule, which curbs smog and soot pollution from power plants that crosses state lines.

Toxic Power: How Power Plants Contaminate Our Air and States

The electric sector is the largest source of industrial emissions of toxic air pollution in the United States, accounting for nearly 50 percent of all reported toxic pollution from industrial sources in 2009. This analysis exposes the leading role power plants play as toxic polluters and for the "Toxic 20" states with the most toxic pollution from power plants.

NRDC and Groups Send 90-day notice letter to BNSF and UP regarding rail yard pollution

California’s two major rail yard operators are illegally disposing hazardous waste thereby increasing the risk of serious health problems such as chronic respiratory disease and cancer in neighboring communities, according to a 90-day notice letter sent June 21, 2011 by NRDC, East Yard Communities for Environmental Justice, and the Center for Community Action and Environmental Justice. The letter contends that the rail yard operators are in violation of the federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act due to the high levels of particulate matter released by their diesel-based operations.

A Section-by-Section of Analysis of AEP Legislation

American Electric Power (AEP) is promoting on Capitol Hill a sweeping, 56-page bill it drafted to weaken and delay federal clean air standards. AEP lobbyists wrote the bill, dubbed it the Electric Power Regulatory Coordination Act of 2011, and then went looking for lawmakers to sponsor it. Here is a section by sectiob breakdown of this bill.

California Air Resources Board: Update on Litigation Challenging AB 32 Scoping Plan

With its implementation of the Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006, also known as AB 32, California is leading the country in its efforts to curb global warming. In March, 2011 a San Francisco Superior Court found the California Air Resources Board’s analysis of alternatives to the AB 32 cap-and-trade section to be lacking. This memo from CARB outlines actions being taken by the board to ensure that California's crucial efforts to protect public health and develop a clean energy economy are not delayed.

Statement by David Hawkins submitted to the Subcommittee on Energy and Power, Committee on Energy and Commerce U.S. House of Representatives

Hearing on Draft Legislation Repealing US EPA’s Finding that Greenhouse Gases Endanger Public Health and Welfare and Repealing Clean Air Act and Certain State Authorities Relating to Greenhouse Gases

Gerald Connolly Dear Colleague Letter 1-5-2011

On January 5, 2011 Congressman Connolly wrote a Dear Colleague letter highlighting EPA’s authority to regulate carbon pollution under the Clean Air Act.

The Zero Emission Vehicle Program: An Analysis of Industry’s Ability to Meet the Standards

Since the 1990s, California’s Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) program has served as a critical technology-forcing component of the state’s vehicle emissions program. Today, the ZEV program has also been adopted by ten other states, making it one of the single-largest policy drivers for the production of electric-drive vehicles nationally such as pure battery electrics (BEVs), fuel cell vehicles (FCVs), and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs).

NRDC Petitions EPA to End Use of Powerful Global Warming Pollutant, HFC-134a, In Vehicle Air Conditioners

NRDC has petitioned the Environmental Protection Agency to remove  HFC-134a, a powerful greenhouse gas, from the list of acceptable substitutes for use in motor vehicle air conditioning systems.  The action would be taken under the Clean Air Act as part of EPA’s Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) program. 

Comments on Proposed Rules for Methyl Bromide Official Quarantine Uses

NRDC comments on rules proposed by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture for determining "official quarantine uses" of methyl bromide under Section 419 of the Plant Protection Act. NRDC submits that the proposed rules do not comply with Section 419 and conflict with requirements of the Montreal Protocol and the Clean Air Act. David Doniger, Climate Center Policy Director, November 12, 2004.

American Trucking Associations, Inc. v. The City of Los Angeles et al Order on Motion for Preliminary Injunction

District Court Judge Snyder’s final ruling on the injunction request by the American Trucking Association to enjoin the concession models within the clean truck programs at the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach.

Simple Methodology to Determine Whether EPA GHG and NHSTA CAFE Standards Are Equivalent to Applying California's Program Nationwide

California has established emission standards for a basket of four greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted by motor vehicles – carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and hydrofluorocarbons – measured on a CO2-equivalent basis. Thirteen other states and the District of Columbia have adopted those standards and more states are considering doing the same. These standards will take effect upon the issuance of a waiver to California under Section 209(b) of the Clean Air Act.

Petition to EPA Asking the Agency to Reconsider the NSR Aggregation Rule

The document is NRDC’s petition to EPA asking the agency to reconsider the NSR Aggregation Rule.

Protecting California's Diesel Clean-Up Measures Protects Public Health and Jobs

In 2006 and 2008, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) adopted two landmark measures to curb diesel pollution from trucks, buses and off-road equipment, protecting the health of residents and workers throughout the state and contributing to a sustainable economy in California. This document outlines why it is a false choice to suggest that Californians have to choose between public health protections and a strong economy.

Petition for Reconsideration of Clean Air Act Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Construction Permit Program

This document is a petition asking EPA to retract a memo from Administrator Johnson dated Dec. 18 that attempts to establish and new and “binding” interpretation of the Clean Air Act by administrative fiat and make it more difficult for the new administration to address global warming pollution in a timely way.

Order on Motion for Summary Judgment on Southern Alliance for Clean Energy et al v. Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC

A federal court ruling will force Duke Energy to control hazardous air pollution from the 800-megawatt addition to its Cliffside coal-fired power plant. The judge sided with NRDC challenging lax air permits awarded to the plant that did not adequately control toxic air pollution.

Comments on the California Air Resources Board Draft Proposal for the California Low Carbon Fuel Standard Regulation (LCFS)

NRDC strongly supports many aspects of the draft proposal, particularly, the establishment of separate standards for gasoline and diesel fuels; the intention to establish separate emission factors for fuels derived from non-conventional crude oil sources, especially tar sands; and the inclusion of the indirect land use change (ILUC) GHG emissions in the alternative fuel carbon intensity emission factors for biofuels, to name a few.

However, we believe the current proposal falls short in a number of ways, and we therefore have recommendations such as providing minimum lands safeguards for biofuel protections that are consistent with analogous federal protections to ensure there is not an unintentional inventive to make biofuels using materials from ecologically sensitive areas that could actually increase GHG emissions.

Fact Sheets on Props 7 and 10

California's prominent conservation groups urge voters to vote no on both Prop 7 and Prop 10. These fact sheets explain in detail why NRDC, Union of Concerned Scientists, California League of Conservation Voters, and Sierra Club California believe Props 7 and 10 are bad for California's economy, bad for jobs and bad for the environment.

Physicists Study Showcases Energy Efficiency as "One of America's Great Hidden Energy Reserves"

Comments of David Goldstein, Energy Program Co-Director, American Physical Society report on Energy Efficiency.

Comments of the Intermodal Motor Carriers Conference, American Trucking Associations (August 18, 2008)

In July 2008, the American Trucking Association filed a lawsuit in federal court challenging the Ports of LA and Long Beach trucking concession plans, but purporting not to challenge the ban of older trucks.  On August 18, 2008, the ATA filed a document asking the FMC to "Undertake A Competitive Review And Analysis Of The Ports' Concession Programs And Assess The Impact Of Enforcement Of The Clean Truck Programs' October 1 Deadlines Prior To Permitting The Agreement To Take Effect."

ATA vs. POLA, Order Denying Preliminary Injunction

Judge Snyder's September 9, 2008 order denying ATA's request for a preliminary injunction.

Schools, Hospitals and Parks Within 5 Miles of China Shipping Terminal, Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach

This demographic map pinpoints all schools, hospitals and parks within a 5 mile radius of the largest shipping terminal in the ports of LA and Long Beach. The map is designed to highlight the proximity of sensitive populations to elevated diesel pollution emissions from the ports. Diesel pollution is magnified and considered especially lethal within this 5 mile radius.

Complaint Filed Against South Coast Air Quality Management District, August 18, 2008

This legal complaint outlines NRDC and co-litigant's legal argument in regards to the validity of air credits issued by the South Coast Air Quality Management District, spanning nearly two decades.

Testimony of Nathanael Greene, Director of Renewable Energy Policy, on Biofuels and the Renewable Fuel Standard

In this testimony presented before the Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, Subcommittee on Clean Air and Nuclear Safety, Nathanael makes the case for protecting key environmental safeguards in the RFS and proactively addressing the food vs fuel debate through reforming the biofuels tax credits and import tariffs by making them performance based and technology neutral.

Congressional Testimony of Deron Lovaas, Vehicles Campaign Director: Future Federal Role for Surface Transportation

In this testimony, delivered before the Senator Environment and Public Works Committee, Lovaas discusses the role of the federal government in determining transportation policy. With high gas prices at the pump affecting families across the country, he offers an in-depth analysis of policy prescriptions to lessen our addiction to oil, and create a more economically and environmentally sustainable transportation sector.

US Conference of Mayors High-Carbon Fuel Resolution

The U.S. Conference of Mayors convened in Miami and adopted this resolution that challenges the use of high carbon fuels such as tar sands, liquid coal, and oil shale on Monday, June 23, 2008

High-Carbon Fuels Resolution - U.S. Conference of Mayors

Mayor Piercy's high carbon fuels resolution for the U.S. Conference of Mayors' 76th Annual Meeting from June 20-23, 2008.

Statement on the Amended Renewable Fuel Standard

Testimony by Nathanael Greene before the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Energy and Commerce, Subcommittee on Energy and Air Quality on the importance of the minimum lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions standards and land and wildlife safeguards in the recently amended renewable fuel standard.

Comments on the Cape Wind Energy Project Draft Environmental Impact Statement

NRDC submitted these comments on the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the proposed Cape Wind offshore wind project on April 21, 2008. The DEIS was prepared by the Mineral Management Service as part of the permitting process for the project. Based on our review of this the information in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers DEIS and other analyses that have been done on the project, NRDC has concluded that the project's environmental benefits will far outweigh its impacts.

Notice of Intent to Sue AQMD

Sixty-day notice of intent to sue letter sent to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (AQMD) today.  The letter alleges violations of the federal Clean Air Act by the air district in distributing invalid emission reduction credits to polluting facilities in Southern California.

NRDC Comments to American Trucking Association Petition on Ports of LA and Long Beach Trucking Plan

This document outlines NRDC's opposition to the American Trucking Association's (ATA) request to the Federal Maritime Commission (FMC) to rule against a plan to clean up Port trucking at both Los Angeles and Long Beach ports. On March 3rd, 2008, the ATA asked the FMC to stop the development of these critical programs that would clean up the serious, toxic pollution problems associated with Port trucking. Utterly ignoring the public health crisis currently faced by port adjacent residents, the ATA claims their request will not have any negative impact on cleaning up truck pollution. In reality, its request to the FMC only serves to further delay the clean trucks plans and continue the tide of toxic air pollution at the ports. NRDC supports clean air at both ports and an expedited implementation of the Clean Air Action Plan. The ATA's active attempts to derail clean up efforts will only result in more pollution and more people suffering from respiratory complications.

Innovation and Regulation in the Automobile Sector

Lessons Learned and Implications for California's CO2 Standards

Improving Transportation Choices

Transportation guzzles petroleum for three reasons: Inefficient vehicles, overreliance on oil-derived fuel, and ever-increasing traffic. The last factor is often overlooked. This first-of-its-kind NRDC analysis maps out one possible future with less traffic thanks to better price signals, investments in buses, rail and other alternatives, as well as smart-growth development patterns.

Long Beach RCRA Letter

Letter from the Natural Resources Defense Council and the Coalition for a Safe Environment to the City of the Long Beach, the Long Beach Board of Harbor Commissioners, and the Port of Long Beach about violations of the Resource Conservation Recovery Act ("RCRA").  The letter alleges harm stemming from the immense amount of diesel pollution the above-referenced entities allow to be placed into the air, onto the land, and into the water.  The letter serves to provide the 90 day statutorily required notice to these entities of their violation of RCRA and indicates the willingness to file suit in federal court unless the harm is abated.

NRDC Calls on Major Airlines to Join Campaign to Use Cleaner Fuels

NRDC today urged the 15 major U.S. and Canadian airlines and airfreight companies to publicly oppose the use of "dirty fuels" -- jet fuel from tar sands, oil shale, and liquid coal -- and is calling on the airlines to join a campaign seeking increased investment in cleaner fuels throughout the airline industry.

Summary of Senate Energy Bill (HR 6)

The Senate energy bill ("Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007," HR 6) is an historic energy bill that would dramatically cut America's oil dependence and take critical steps towards solving the global warming problem.

Energy Bill Promotes Clean Biofuels

The energy bill passed by the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate ("Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007," H.R. 6) includes a renewable fuel standard (RFS) that gets biofuels on the right track. The RFS would substantially increase biofuels production in the U.S., promote cellulosic biofuels, and establish crucial safeguards necessary to ensure that biofuels achieve climate benefits while protecting the environment and public health.

Testimony on the Environmental and Health Impacts of Oil and Gas Exploration and Production

Testimony of Amy Mall, Senior Policy Analyst, Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), on the applicability of federal requirements that protect public health and the environment to oil and gas development. Presented to the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, United States House of Representatives, October 31, 2007.

Testimony on Implementation of the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS)

Testimony by NRDC Senior Policy Analyst, Nathanael Greene, before the House Select Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming, October 24, 2007. This testimony address the environmental promises and challenges of biofuels, the general policies needed to get biofuels right and the changes to the proposed expanded renewable fuels standard needed to drive the market for the best biofuels technologies.

Environmental Policy for the Hawaiian Electric Company's Procurement of Biodiesel from Palm Oil and Locally Grown Feedstocks

Prepared By HECO and NRDC, August 2007

Addicted to Oil: Ranking States' Oil Vulnerability and Solutions for Change

This June 2007 NRDC issue paper identifies the states that are most vulnerable to increases in gas prices -- and those states that are doing the most to implement policies that protect consumers and the environment and reduce vulnerability to oil price hikes.

Transportation Fuels Briefing

Briefing for the Committee on Environment and Public Works United States Senate, June 13, 2007.

NRDC Statement on New Study of Ethanol (E85) Impact on Air Quality

NRDC believes there should be no rush to judgment on the impacts of ethanol used as high blends (E85) on air quality based on a new study by Mark Z. Jacobson of Stanford University.

Creating Markets for Green Biofuels: Measuring and Improving Environmental Performance

Not all biofuels are created equal. NRDC commissioned this report from a group of researchers at University of California, Berkeley, to scope out the environmental characteristics of biofuels and the technical challenges to developing an index or rating system so that policymakers and, someday, even consumers could choose "green" biofuels.

All That Glitters Is Not Gold: How to Get Real Benefits from Biofuels

This article, published in Ethanol Today, sets forth a balanced package of supply and demand solutions that will maximize the benefits of biofuels in solving our global warming and energy security crises.

Cargo on the Move Through California: Evaluating Container Fee Impacts on Port Choice

This study, commissioned by NRDC and the Coalition for Clean Air, concludes that applying port user fees at California ports will not cause significant diversion to other ports.

MTA New York City Transit Bus Fleet Emissions, 1995 to 2006

NRDC kicked off a 'Dump Dirty Diesels' campaign in 1995 that led to New York City Transit's adoption in 2000 of its Clean-Fuel Bus Program.  In 2006, NRDC hired Michael J. Bradley & Associates to study the reductions in emissions from NYC Transit buses since the start of that campaign.  The study concluded that NYC Transit reduced particulate matter emissions from its buses by 97 percent and smog-forming nitrogen oxides emissions by 58 percent since 1995. The NYC Transit program is now being replicated by other transit fleets around the U.S. and the world.

Achievable Cost-Effective Natural Gas Savings in the United States Due to Adoption of Aggressive Energy Efficiency Policies and Programs

NRDC retained GDS Associates, Inc., to prepare this report on the potential for saving natural gas in the United States over the next five decades if aggressive policies and programs were implemented to capture cost effective and untapped energy savings.

California's Sustainable Energy Policies Provide a Model for the Nation

This fact sheet provides an overview of California's sustainable energy policies addressing areas including energy efficiency, renewable energy, transportation and global warming.  Through these policies, California has lowered its per capita global warming pollution contributions by about 30% over the past three decades, while the per capita emissions of the rest of the U.S. have remained essentially level.

Location Efficiency as the Missing Piece of The Energy Puzzle: How Smart Growth Can Unlock Trillion Dollar Consumer Cost Savings

Mary Jean Burer and David B. Goldstein, Natural Resources Defense Council; John Holtzclaw, Sierra Club. Used with permission from the 2004 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings Proceedings, copyright 2004, American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, 1001 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Suite 801, Washington, D.C. 20036, www.aceee.org.

U.S. EPA Memo: FY 2005-2007 National Program Managers Guidance-Supplement


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