The working materials in the NRDC Document Bank are listed in reverse chronological order. For additional policy materials including reports and issue papers, see the Issues section of the main NRDC site.
Editorial Page Briefers on Our Changing Climate: Stark Impacts For Agriculture And Health the Longer We Delay Curbing Carbon Pollution
A national, Midwest, and Southeast background briefer for editorial page writers, columnists and journalists offering the case for addressing climate change now, highlights of what can be expected in the National Climate Assessment report to Congress and details of climate health and agriculture impacts and costs already being seen and felt in the U.S.
Dave Hawkin's testimony on EPA's proposed new source performance standards for carbon dioxide for electric generating units.
Before the Subcommittee on Environment and the Subcommittee on Energy of the House Committee on Science, Space and Technology on EPA's proposed new source performance standards for carbon dioxide for electric generating units (MARCH 12, 2014).
Latinos Want Climate Action
New survey out today from NRDC shows that Latinos are particularly strong in their views on the need for action on climate change and carbon pollution.
- http://vimeopro.com/juiceboxdc/nrdc-vnr-a-and-b-roll VNR A & B roll package
- http://vimeopro.com/juiceboxdc/nrdc-vnr-a-roll-only VNR A Roll
- glo_14012301a.pdf Themes and findings from NRDC poll on Latino views on climate
- glo_14012301b.pdf Toplines from the NRDC poll
Proposal: New Architecture for a New Global Partnership
Proposal to the United Nations Open Working Group on Sustainable Development Goals for a new architecture to encourage action and accountability on sustainable development, December 10, 2013.
Counting the Benefits of Cutting Carbon Pollution: Questions and Answers on the “Social Cost of Carbon”
Document on questions and answers on the "social cost of carbon."
Climate and Jobs Editorial Briefers
Americans have a significant interest in the plan President Obama laid out on June 25th in his national climate change initiative, a detailed approach to confronting the central environmental crisis of our time. As you consider how best to address this issue for your readers, viewers and audience, we hope this information will help.
- glo_13073101a.pdf National briefer
- glo_13073101b.pdf Florida briefer
- glo_13073101c.pdf Illinois briefer
- glo_13073101d.pdf Michigan briefer
- glo_13073101e.pdf Montana briefer
- glo_13073101f.pdf New Hampshire briefer
- glo_13073101g.pdf North Carolina briefer
- glo_13073101h.pdf Ohio briefer
- glo_13073101i.pdf Oregon briefer
- glo_13073101j.pdf Pennsylvania briefer
- glo_13073101k.pdf Virginia briefer
Memo from Hart Research / Chesapeake Beach Consulting to NRDC Key Findings From Survey On Carbon Pollution And Climate Change
A memo summarizing key findings of a poll of 808 registered voters across the country about President Obama’s climate announcement in June. The poll was conducted from July 1 to 7, 2013, by Hart Research, in conjunction with Chesapeake Beach Consulting.
Letter to FEMA regarding consideration of climate change in state hazard mitigation planning
In this letter, NRDC are asking that FEMA update its guidance and tools for states to more accurately assess their climate change risks. We also ask that FEMA ensure that all states are considering climate change in their state hazard mitigation plans.
Losing Our Heritage: Budget Cut Impacts and Our Environment
Losing Our Heritage: Budget Cut Impacts and Our Environment, prepared by a coalition of national environmental and conservation organizations, illustrates how indiscriminant spending cuts will adversely affect our nation’s ability to respond to environmental challenges of a changing climate, develop our clean energy resources, and sustain our nation’s lands, waters, wildlife and other natural resources. It also details a number of revenue raisers and cost savings measures that should be considered as part of any balanced approach to deficit reduction.
2013 State of the Union Latino Survey Results
NRDC commissioned Public Policy Polling (PPP) to survey Latinos and guage their reactions to President Obama's 2013 State of the Union address and his commitment to tackling climate change.
State of the Union 2013 Snap Poll Results
NRDC commissioned Public Policy Polling (PPP) to gauge reactions to the President's speech last night and his commitment to tackling climate change. View summary or polling results.
Letter to Secretary Kerry Congratulating His Confirmation as Secretary of State
60 national and regional conservation, environmental, health and public advocacy organizations are sending a letter to Secretary John Kerry congratulating his confiramtion as Secretary of State and his long-standing commitment to addressing climate change.
Letter to President Obama applauding him for repeatedly raising the threat of climate change
Nearly 70 national and regional conservation, environmental, health and public advocacy organizations are sending a letter to President Obama applauding him for repeatedly raising the threat of climate change, and calls on him to take three specific steps to help promote clean energy and reduce carbon emissions that are key drivers of climate change. They are to continue elevating the issue before the American public; to use existing authority to curb carbon pollution, particularly at existing power plants; and to reject dirty fuels, beginning with denying the Keystone XL tar sands pipeline.
Memo To Gov. Cuomo On Post-Sandy Recommendations
NRDC sent a memo on December 19, 2012 to Governor Cuomo on post-Sandy recommendations.
Prevent the Sequester to Protect Our Air, Water, Wildlife and Public Lands: Funding Cuts Will Threaten Jobs, Recreation, and Public Health
An analysis of budget sequestration impacts to the environment and natural resources authored by the Natural Resources Defense Council, World Wildlife Fund, The Wilderness Society, American Forests, National Parks Conservation Foundation, Marine Conservation Institute, and Defenders of Wildlife.
New Facts and Additional Information Supporting the CoP16 Polar Bear Proposal Submitted by the United States of America
The United States proposes to transfer the polar bear, Ursus maritimus, from Appendix II to Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), on the basis that the polar bear is affected by trade and threatened with extinction because of a projected marked decline in the population size in the wild. This paper summarizes new scientific findings and additional evidence since 2009, which underpin Russian Federation and U.S. support for uplisting since the last Convention was held. Notably, the reasons why polar bears meet the criteria for Appendix I listing are (1) they are a species that has declined in the wild, and is characterized by future declines, leading to widespread extirpation, projected on the basis of a decrease in area and quality of habitat; and (2) they are a species affected by commercial trade, which overharvesting is helping supply.
Petition to the Environmental Protection Agency to Set a Deadline for Getting HFC-134a Out of New Refrigerators, Freezers, and a Variety of Other Products
NRDC and two partners (the Institute for Global Governance and Sustainability and the Environmental Investigation Agency) petitioned the Environmental Protection Agency to set a deadline for getting a powerful climate-changing pollutant – HFC-134a – out of new refrigerators, freezers, and a variety of other products.
Climate and health briefer for Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania has a significant interest in the pending action by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to protect Americans from dangerous carbon pollution from new power plants – pollution that threatens the health of Pennsylvania residents and other Americans and also fuels some of the increasingly extreme weather in Pennsylvania and the rest of the U.S.
More Jobs, Less Pollution: Growing the Recycling Economy in the U.S.
This BGA Recycling Report [almost two years in the making], that NRDC helped finance and substantially edit, will be the subject of our BGA/NRDC press conferences on Nov 15th in DC, NY, LA, Cleveland, SF. Senator Carper and Rep Pallone (Co-Chair of Recycling Caucus) will host the DC event, which will take place on the Hill. Short story: We estimate 2.3- 2.8 million new jobs if we achieve a 75% national recycling rate [we are at about 32% now], and Producer Responsibility laws and deposits are the way to get there.
TRAIN Act Fact Sheet
This fact sheet describes the most harmful provisions of the TRAIN Act (H.R. 2401). It also summarizes the devastating human health impacts this Act would incur.
How the TRAIN Act Has Changed Since Its Introduction
This fact sheet explains how the TRAIN Act (H.R. 2401) has become a much more deadly bill after being amended in Full Committee. While TRAIN, as originally introduced, merely required a committee to study EPA rules, the version the House is scheduled to vote on could permanently block two clean air safeguards—the Mercury and Air Toxics standards, which limit mercury and other toxic air pollution, and the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule, which curbs smog and soot pollution from power plants that crosses state lines.
Toxic Power: How Power Plants Contaminate Our Air and States
The electric sector is the largest source of industrial emissions of toxic air pollution in the United States, accounting for nearly 50 percent of all reported toxic pollution from industrial sources in 2009. This analysis exposes the leading role power plants play as toxic polluters and for the "Toxic 20" states with the most toxic pollution from power plants.
- air_11072001a.pdf Presentation: How Power Plants Contaminate Our Air and States
- air_11072001b.pdf Map
An NRDC Earth Action guide: Saving the Ozone Layer
This pamphlet describes David’s work with CFC’s and the need for a phase-out plan. It also goes into depth on CFC’s connection to the greenhouse effect and how they are leading to ozone depletion. It concludes with what citizens can do to stop ozone depletion and around the world and here at home.
Green Sports Alliance Commendation
March 21, 2011 letter of commendation for the Green Sports Alliance from Oregon Governor John A. Kitzhaber, MD.
Survey Results on Americans and Attitudes About the EPA
This is a recent survey from ORC/Infogroup that explores Americans attitudes about the EPA. The poll shows very strong support for the EPA generally and strong support for the EPA limiting global warming pollution.
Presentations from Carbon Capture and Sequestration Public Workshops, June 10, 2010
The materials provided directly below were presented on June 10, 2010 at a Carbon Capture & Sequestration Public workshop in Sacramento, California. The workshop was hosted by NRDC and Environmental Defense Fund, co-hosted by the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership and the William C. Velasquez Institute, and co-sponsored by the Bureau of Economic Geology at the University of Texas, California Energy Commission, the Global Climate and Energy Project at Stanford University, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions at Duke University.
- glo_10062101a.pdf Sally Benson, Director, Global Climate & Energy Project, Stanford University: Geological Sequestration: A Primer
- glo_10062101b.pdf Mark Brownstein, Managing Director of Business Partnerships, Environmental Defense Fund: Carbon Capture & Storage: Policy Context
- glo_10062101c.pdf Liz Burton, WESTCARB Technical Director: Carbon Capture & Sequestration in the California Context
- glo_10062101d.pdf Julio Friedmann, Leader, Energy & Environment Directorate, Carbon Management Program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: Carbon Sequestration Risks and Hazards: What we know and what we don’t know
- glo_10062101e.pdf Susan Hovorka, Principal Investigator, Bureau of Economic Geology, University of Texas: Ensuring & Monitoring Secure Storage for CCS Projects
- glo_10062101f.pdf Pete Montgomery, Executive Director, CCS Coalition: A Voice for California’s CCS Industry
- glo_10062101g.pdf George Peridas, Scientist, Climate Center, Natural Resources Defense Council: Moving Forward with CCS: Policy Needs
- glo_10062101h.pdf Dale Simbeck, Vice President Technology, SFA Pacific, Inc.: Carbon Capture Technologies & Economics
- glo_10062101i.pdf Sarah Wade, AJW Inc.: Regulatory and Legal Considerations for CCS
NRDC Petitions EPA to End Use of Powerful Global Warming Pollutant, HFC-134a, In Vehicle Air Conditioners
NRDC has petitioned the Environmental Protection Agency to remove HFC-134a, a powerful greenhouse gas, from the list of acceptable substitutes for use in motor vehicle air conditioning systems. The action would be taken under the Clean Air Act as part of EPA’s Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) program.
Letter to President Obama in support of clean energy and climate legislation
Letter from more than 50 national organizations to President Obama, sent on April 29, 2010, urging him to continue to demonstrate his leadership for the enactment of clean energy and climate legislation this year.
The Heritage Foundation's Economic Critique of ACES
This analysis provides a critique of the Heritage Foundation’s economic analysis of ACES, detailing unrealistic assumptions made in their modeling. The Q&A structure of the critique is based on a blog that provides guidelines on how to assess any economic analysis of climate legislation.
Glacier National Park in Peril: The Threats of Climate Disruption
Glacier is one of the 25 national parks identified as most vulnerable to the effects of a changed climate in October 2009 report, National Parks in Peril. This new profile details and documents the particular ways in which Glacier is vulnerable. Released by The Rocky Mountain Climate Organization and Natural Resources Defense Council.
Apoyo fuerte entre comunidades minoritarias para políticas de cambio climático y energía
Esta presentación resultados de una encuentra que examina el apoyo para políticas contra el calentamiento global y por la energía limpia y determinó que los hispanos, afroamericanos y otras minoría raciales a menudo eran los más fuertes partidarios de las políticas para reducir las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero, incluso donde algunas de estas políticas impliquen costos individuales.
Support for Comprehensive Climate and Energy Policies Strong Among Racial and Ethnic Groups
This slideshow looks at support for various climate and energy policies and finds that Hispanics, African Americans and other minorities were often the strongest supporters of policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, even where some of these policies would entail individual costs.
- glo_10041501a.pdf [English]
Stress Testing the Market Stability Reserve
Presentation by Andy Stevenson of the Center for Market Innovation at the 4th Annual Carbon Trading Summit on Jan 26, 2010.
Clean Energy Building Finance Policy Statement
This statement outlines several federal financing policies that could be deployed quickly in the context of a jobs bill, in order to catalyze a retrofit industry that will generate long-term employment.
Letter to President Obama Asking for Climate Finance in Copenhagen
Leading environmental organizations send letter to Obama asking for climate finance in Copenhagen.
NRDC Letter to President Obama on US-India Climate and Energy Cooperation
This letter on climate change and energy from NRDC to President Obama was written in advance of Indian Prime Minister Singh's state visit to Washington D.C. in November 2009.
More information on Clean Energy Common Sense
These documents were prepared in relation to the November 10th, 2009 release of "Clean Energy Common Sense", by NRDC President Frances Beinecke with Bob Deans, Foreword by Robert Redford
- glo_09111001a.pdf Q and A with Frances Beinecke
- glo_09111001b.pdf Statement of Frances Beinecke as prepared for delivery
- glo_09111001c.pdf General book information
A Clean Energy Bargain Modeling Results and Assumptions
In a new climate policy analysis, NRDC used two well-known national energy models to examine the impact of the American Clean Energy and Security Act (ACES) on the economy. The main findings include: 1) ACES will boost our economy: ACES will drive $300 billion of investments (through 2030) toward clean energy, creating hundreds of thousands of jobs in the process; 2) ACES is affordable: The cost of ACES to American households will be less than a postage stamp per day; 3) ACES will make America more secure: ACES can reduce oil imports by as much as 5 million barrels per day, improve our energy security, and reduce the risk of fuel price shocks. This presentation includes detailed results from the analysis, as well as a discussion of the assumptions used.
How -- and Where -- to Control HFCs: Options for Making Faster Progress
Presentation by David Doniger, NRDC Climate Center, EPA-State Stakeholder Meeting, January 29, 2009 [Updated April 28, 2009]
Support New Jobs, Clean Energy, and National Security
The lobby for the industry that brought you $4 per gallon gasoline prices last summer is now opposing the America’s Clean Energy and Security Act (ACES), a bill that will create millions of clean energy jobs, break our addiction to oil, and dramatically reduce the pollution that causes global warming. While claiming to be concerned about impacts on consumers, API is distorting the facts to protect its own interests in an attempt to slow progress of this critically important legislation.
Green Prosperity: How Clean-Energy Policies Can Fight Poverty and Raise Living Standards in the United States
This June 2009 report from the Political Economy Research Institute at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, finds that investments in clean energy technology will create more job opportunities -- especially for low-income workers -- than equivalent spending on fossil fuels, across all levels of education, creating new "pathways out of poverty" and raising the standard of living for low-income workers employed in clean energy manufacturing jobs. An investment of $150 billion a year in clean energy -- roughly one percent of national GDP -- would result in 1.7 million new jobs, with roughly 870,000 of them accessible to workers with high school degrees or less.
- glo_09062504a.pdf REPORT: Green Prosperity
Green Prosperity: Related Local Fact Sheets, Alabama - Iowa
State and local fact sheets [Alabama - Iowa]
- glo_09062503a.pdf Fact Sheet: Arizona
- glo_09062503b.pdf Fact Sheet: Arkansas
- glo_09062503c.pdf Fact Sheet: Arkansas: Congressional District 4
- glo_09062503d.pdf Fact Sheet: Arkansas: Little Rock
- glo_09062503e.pdf Fact Sheet: California
- glo_09062503f.pdf Fact Sheet: California: Oakland
- glo_09062503g.pdf Fact Sheet: Colorado
- glo_09062503h.pdf Fact Sheet: Florida
- glo_09062503i.pdf Fact Sheet: Florida: Congressional District 5
- glo_09062503j.pdf Fact Sheet: Florida: Congressional District 9
- glo_09062503k.pdf Fact Sheet: Florida: Congressional District 10
- glo_09062503l.pdf Fact Sheet: Florida: Congressional District 11
- glo_09062503m.pdf Fact Sheet: Florida: Congressional District 18
- glo_09062503n.pdf Fact Sheet: Florida: Congressional District 21
- glo_09062503o.pdf Fact Sheet: Florida: Miami
- glo_09062503p.pdf Fact Sheet: Florida: Tampa
- glo_09062503q.pdf Fact Sheet: Georgia: Atlanta
- glo_09062503r.pdf Fact Sheet: Illinois
- glo_09062503s.pdf Fact Sheet: Illinois: Chicago
- glo_09062503t.pdf Fact Sheet: Indiana
- glo_09062503u.pdf Fact Sheet: Iowa: Des Moines
- glo_09062503v.pdf Fact Sheet: Alabama
- glo_09062503w.pdf Fact Sheet: Alaska
- glo_09062503x.pdf Fact Sheet: Connecticut
- glo_09062503y.pdf Fact Sheet: District of Columbia
- glo_09062503z.pdf Fact Sheet: Delaware
- glo_09062503aa.pdf Fact Sheet: Georgia
- glo_09062503ab.pdf Fact Sheet: Hawaii
- glo_09062503ac.pdf Fact Sheet: Idaho
- glo_09062503ad.pdf Fact Sheet: Iowa
Green Prosperity: Related Local Fact Sheets, Kansas - Oregon
State and local fact sheets [Kansas - Oregon]
- glo_09062502a.pdf Fact Sheet: Louisiana: New Orleans
- glo_09062502b.pdf Fact Sheet: Maine
- glo_09062502c.pdf Fact Sheet: Massachusetts: Congressional District 1
- glo_09062502d.pdf Fact Sheet: Michigan
- glo_09062502e.pdf Fact Sheet: Michigan: Congressional District 15
- glo_09062502f.pdf Fact Sheet: Michigan: Detroit
- glo_09062502g.pdf Fact Sheet: Minnesota: Minneapolis
- glo_09062502h.pdf Fact Sheet: Missouri
- glo_09062502i.pdf Fact Sheet: Missouri: Congressional District 4
- glo_09062502j.pdf Fact Sheet: Missouri: Kansas City
- glo_09062502k.pdf Fact Sheet: Montana: Billings
- glo_09062502l.pdf Fact Sheet: Nevada: Las Vegas
- glo_09062502m.pdf Fact Sheet: New Jersey
- glo_09062502n.pdf Fact Sheet: New Jersey: Newark
- glo_09062502o.pdf Fact Sheet: New Mexico
- glo_09062502p.pdf Fact Sheet: New Mexico: Albuquerque
- glo_09062502q.pdf Fact Sheet: New York
- glo_09062502r.pdf Fact Sheet: New York: New York City
- glo_09062502s.pdf Fact Sheet: Ohio
- glo_09062502t.pdf Fact Sheet: Ohio: Cleveland
- glo_09062502u.pdf Fact Sheet: Ohio: Congressional District 13
- glo_09062502v.pdf Fact Sheet: Ohio: Congressional District 18
- glo_09062502w.pdf Fact Sheet: Kansas
- glo_09062502x.pdf Fact Sheet: Kentucky
- glo_09062502y.pdf Fact Sheet: Louisiana
- glo_09062502z.pdf Fact Sheet: Maryland
- glo_09062502aa.pdf Fact Sheet: Massachusetts
- glo_09062502ab.pdf Fact Sheet: Minnesota
- glo_09062502ac.pdf Fact Sheet: Mississippi
- glo_09062502ad.pdf Fact Sheet: Montana
- glo_09062502ae.pdf Fact Sheet: Nebraska
- glo_09062502af.pdf Fact Sheet: Nevada
- glo_09062502ag.pdf Fact Sheet: New Hampshire
- glo_09062502ah.pdf Fact Sheet: North Carolina
- glo_09062502ai.pdf Fact Sheet: North Dakota
- glo_09062502aj.pdf Fact Sheet: Oklahoma
- glo_09062502ak.pdf Fact Sheet: Oregon
Green Prosperity: Related Local Fact Sheets, Pennsylvania - Wyoming
State and local fact sheets [Pennsylvania - Wyoming]
- glo_09062501a.pdf Fact Sheet: Pennsylvania
- glo_09062501b.pdf Fact Sheet: Pennsylvania: Congressional District 5
- glo_09062501c.pdf Fact Sheet: Pennsylvania: Congressional District 6
- glo_09062501d.pdf Fact Sheet: Pennsylvania: Congressional District 14
- glo_09062501e.pdf Fact Sheet: Pennsylvania: Congressional District 15
- glo_09062501f.pdf Fact Sheet: Pennsylvania: Congressional District 17
- glo_09062501g.pdf Fact Sheet: Pennsylvania: Philadelphia
- glo_09062501h.pdf Fact Sheet: Pennsylvania: Pittsburgh
- glo_09062501i.pdf Fact Sheet: South Carolina
- glo_09062501j.pdf Fact Sheet: South Carolina: Charleston
- glo_09062501k.pdf Fact Sheet: South Dakota
- glo_09062501l.pdf Fact Sheet: Tennessee
- glo_09062501m.pdf Fact Sheet: Tennessee: Congressional District 6
- glo_09062501n.pdf Fact Sheet: Tennessee: Nashville
- glo_09062501o.pdf Fact Sheet: Texas
- glo_09062501p.pdf Fact Sheet: Virginia
- glo_09062501q.pdf Fact Sheet: Washington
- glo_09062501r.pdf Fact Sheet: Washington: Seattle
- glo_09062501s.pdf Fact Sheet: Wisconsin: Milwaukee
- glo_09062501t.pdf Fact Sheet: Rhode Island
- glo_09062501u.pdf Fact Sheet: Utah
- glo_09062501v.pdf Fact Sheet: Vermont
- glo_09062501w.pdf Fact Sheet: West Virginia
- glo_09062501y.pdf Fact Sheet: Wisconsin
- glo_09062501z.pdf Fact Sheet: Wyoming
Prosperidad Verde: Como las poltícas de energía limpia pueden combatir la pobreza y mejorar la calidad de vida en los Estados Unidos
Publicado en Junio del 2009 por el Instituto de Investigación de Política Económica (PERI) de la Universidad de Massachusetts en Amherst, este informe determina que las inversiones en tecnología de energía limpia generarán más oportunidades de trabajo – especialmente para trabajadores de bajos ingresos – comparado con una inversión equivalente en combustibles fósiles. Esta inversión crea nuevos "caminos para salir de la pobreza" y mejora la calidad de vida de trabajadores de bajos ingresos que fabrican energía limpia, sin importar el nivel de educación. Una inversión de $150 mil millones al año en energía limpia – alrededor del uno por ciento del PIB nacional – se traduciría en 1,7 millones nuevos empleos, con alrededor de 870.000 de ellos al alcance de trabajadores con educación secundaria o menos.
- glo_09061901a.pdf Resumen
- glo_09061901b.pdf Hoja informativa: Florida: Miami
- glo_09061901c.pdf Hoja informativa: Florida: Tampa
- glo_09061901d.pdf Hoja informativa: Nevada: Las Vegas
Declaration of U.S. and Canadian Environmental Leaders on Climate, Energy and Conservation Cooperation
A declaration detailing the new focused collaboration between leaders from the major U.S. and Canadian environmental and conservation organizations on common climate, energy and natural areas conservation issues.
Blue Green Alliance Policy Statement on Climate Change Legislation
In response to deepening economic and climate crises, the Blue Green Alliance and its labor and environmental partner organizations strongly advocate for domestic energy and climate change legislation that will rapidly put Americans back to work with millions of jobs building the clean energy economy and reducing global warming emissions to a level necessary to avoid the worst effects of climate change. A sound energy and climate change policy can put our country back to work quickly and efficiently and put us on a path for sustained economic growth.
Simple Methodology to Determine Whether EPA GHG and NHSTA CAFE Standards Are Equivalent to Applying California's Program Nationwide
California has established emission standards for a basket of four greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted by motor vehicles – carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and hydrofluorocarbons – measured on a CO2-equivalent basis. Thirteen other states and the District of Columbia have adopted those standards and more states are considering doing the same. These standards will take effect upon the issuance of a waiver to California under Section 209(b) of the Clean Air Act.
Presentations from Carbon Capture and Sequestration Public Workshops
The materials provided directly below were presented on March 5, 2009 (New York City), and March 6, 2009 (Washington D.C.), at workshops organized by NRDC and Environmental Defense Fund and co-sponsored by the Global Climate and Energy Project at Stanford University, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Bureau of Economic Geology at the University of Texas, Bloomberg, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Energy Initiative, Pew Center on Global Climate Change and in association with the Joint Global Change Research Institute.
- glo_09031101a.pdf Caroline Angoorly, Head of Environmental Markets - North America J.P. Morgan, Global Commodities: Carbon Capture & Sequestration: Views from Industry, Part II
- glo_09031101b.pdf Sally Benson, Executive Director, Global Climate & Energy Project, Stanford University: Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration in Deep Geological Formations
- glo_09031101c.pdf Tim Bradley, President, Kinder-Morgan CO2 Company: Carbon Capture & Sequestration: The Enhanced Oil Recovery Story
- glo_09031101d.pdf Mark Brownstein, Managing Director of Business Partnerships, Environmental Defense Fund: CCS Policy Context
- glo_09031101e.pdf James Dooley, Senior Staff Engineer, Joint Global Change Research Institute: Overview of Selected Issues Associated with the Scale of the Climate Change Challenge and the Potential Role of Large Scale Commercial Deployment of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies.
- glo_09031101f.pdf Ronald T. Evans, Senior Vice President, Reservoir Engineering, Denbury Resources: Carbon Capture & Sequestration: The Enhanced Oil Recovery Story
- glo_09031101g.pdf Julio Friedmann, Leader, Energy & Environment Directorate, Carbon Management Program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: Carbon Sequestration Risks and Hazards: What we know and what we don’t know
- glo_09031101h.pdf David Hawkins, Director, Climate Programs, Natural Resources Defense Council: CCS Policy Needs: Reconciling Coal and Climate
- glo_09031101i.pdf Stephen Heare, Director, Drinking Water Protection Division, Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, Environmental Protection Agency: EPA’s Geologic Sequestration Rulemaking
- glo_09031101j.pdf Howard Herzog, Principal Researcher, CCS Technologies Program, Laboratory for Energy & the Environment, Massachusetts Institute of Technology: Carbon Capture & Sequestration Economics
- glo_09031101k.pdf Gardiner Hill, Director, BP Alternative Energy Global Carbon Sequestration Technology Group: Carbon Capture & Sequestration: Views from Industry
- glo_09031101l.pdf Susan Hovorka, Principal Investigator, Bureau of Economic Geology, University of Texas: Key Field Studies and Conclusions
- glo_09031101m.pdf John Mimikakis, Senior Policy Manager, Environmental Defense Fund: CCS Policy Perspectives
Testimony of Barbara Finamore, Senior Attorney and China Program Director, Natural Resources Defense Council
On March 4, 2009, Barbara Finamore testified before the Select Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming in the United States House of Representatives. The hearing was titled, "Preparing for Copenhagen: How Developing Countries are Fighting Climate Change"
On March 4, 2009, Barbara Finamore testified before the Select Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming in the United States House of Representatives. The hearing was titled, "Preparing for Copenhagen: How Developing Countries are Fighting Climate Change"
NRDC Final Comments to Pay As You Drive auto insurance regulations
NRDC comments to California Department of Insurance expressing support for implementing usage-based auto insurance, popularly known as Pay As You Drive (PAYD). We recommend strengthening the proposed regulations by making PAYD a required offering in California and solution that's good for the environment and good for the fight against global warming.
Order on Motion for Summary Judgment on Southern Alliance for Clean Energy et al v. Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC
A federal court ruling will force Duke Energy to control hazardous air pollution from the 800-megawatt addition to its Cliffside coal-fired power plant. The judge sided with NRDC challenging lax air permits awarded to the plant that did not adequately control toxic air pollution.
Comments on the California Air Resources Board Draft Proposal for the California Low Carbon Fuel Standard Regulation (LCFS)
NRDC strongly supports many aspects of the draft proposal, particularly, the establishment of separate standards for gasoline and diesel fuels; the intention to establish separate emission factors for fuels derived from non-conventional crude oil sources, especially tar sands; and the inclusion of the indirect land use change (ILUC) GHG emissions in the alternative fuel carbon intensity emission factors for biofuels, to name a few.
However, we believe the current proposal falls short in a number of ways, and we therefore have recommendations such as providing minimum lands safeguards for biofuel protections that are consistent with analogous federal protections to ensure there is not an unintentional inventive to make biofuels using materials from ecologically sensitive areas that could actually increase GHG emissions.
Recommended Climate and Energy Priorities for the Obama Administration
NRDC worked with more than 30 other environmental groups to create these goals for the Obama transition team.
Extreme Efficiency: How Far Can We Go If We Really Need To?
This paper looks at factors that expand the efficiency potential in the context of the need to meet aggressive climate change emissions reduction goals, and the desire to do so in a way that minimizes costs and enhances economic development. It discusses the potential for continuous improvement in efficiency technology and design approach and how this can produce innovations that have economic benefits beyond the value of energy savings.
Quantifying the Third Leg: The Potential for Smart Growth to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions
This report reviews the existing literature on the potential for smart growth and related policies to make a significant contribution to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and attempts to draw conclusions about the likely magnitude of such a contribution.
Sustainable Fuel Users Group Pledge
NRDC joined with Boeing, international airlines, and other groups in establishing the Sustainable Fuel Users group, which will investigate and promote low-carbon aviation fuels for the aviation industry. This document outlines the tenants from which the group will operate.
Testimony of Michael Goo on the Carbon Capture and Storage Early Deployment Act
Testimony of Michael Goo, Climate Legislative Director, Natural Resources Defense Council, before the Subcommittee on Energy and Air Quality, United States House of Representatives hearing on "The Carbon Capture and Storage Early Deployment Act," July 10, 2008.
Testimony of George Peridas on "Spinning Straw Into Black Gold: Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Carbon Dioxide"
Written testimony of George Peridas, Ph.D., Science Fellow, Climate Center, Natural Resources Defense Council, submitted to the Natural Resources Committee, Subcommittee on Energy and Mineral Resources, Unites States House of Representatives hearing on "Spinning Straw Into Black Gold: Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Carbon Dioxide," June 12th, 2008.
Testimony of Michael Goo on Legislative Proposals to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Testimony of Michael Goo, Climate Legislative Director, Natural Resources Defense Council, before the Subcommittee on Energy and Air Quality Committee on Energy and Commerce, United States House of Representatives hearing on legislative proposals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, June 19, 2008.
Oil Security Benefits of the Lieberman-Warner Climate Security Act (CSA)
This presentation summarizes how the Climate Security Act would cut oil imports and give greater fuel choices to drivers. These results have been excerpted from a larger analysis conducted by International Resources Group (IRG) for NRDC.
Coal and Natural Gas Use in the Electric Power Sector under the Climate Security Act
This report presents a scenario where increased reliance on efficiency, renewable resources and carbon dioxide capture from coal power plants can achieve the near and mid-term reduction goals of the Climate Security Act without significant changes in reliance on coal, natural gas or nuclear energy to meet U.S. power needs.
Letter to Senate on Climate Security Act
A letter to Senate on Climate Security Act from Frances Beinecke.
Testimony of Michael Goo on the EPA's New Ozone Standards
Testimony of Michael Goo, Climate Legislative Director, Natural Resources Defense Council, before the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, United States House of Representatives hearing on the "EPA's New Ozone Standards," May 20, 2008.
US Technology Choices, Costs and Opportunities under the Lieberman-Warner Climate Security Act: Assessing Compliance Pathways
This analysis, conducted by the International Resources Group for NRDC, demonstrates that meeting global warming pollution reduction targets in the Lieberman-Warner Climate Security Act will reduce oil imports, increase clean energy production and lead to dramatically more fuel-efficient vehicles.
Environmental Community Letter Opposing Repeal of Section 526 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007
27 U.S. and Canadian environmental organizations asked the Senate to oppose amendments to the 2008 National Defense Authorization Bill that would repeal section 526 of the Energy Security and Indpendence Act of 2007. Section 526 bars federal agencies from entering into contracts to procure alternative (unconventional and synthetic) transportation fuels with greater lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions than conventional fuel.
Motion to Enforce the Supreme Court's Massachusetts v. EPA Decision
On 1 year anniversary of landmark Supreme Court global warming decision, NRDC and state-environmental coalition ask D.C. Circuit to end EPA's delay and force action to curb CO2 and other heat-trapping pollutants from cars and trucks.
Testimony of Heather Taylor-Miesle Presented to a Subcommittee of the House Appropriations Committee
Testimony of Heather Taylor-Miesle, Deputy Legislative Director, Natural Resources Defense Council, to a subcommittee of the House Appropriations Committee regarding funding needs for various environmental agencies to combat global warming, March 13, 2008.
Testimony of David Doniger from February 28th Before the House Energy and Commerce Committee on Developing Countries Adaptation to Climate Change
Summary of testimony of David D. Doniger, Climate Center Policy Director, Natural Resources Defense Council, February 28, 2008.
Coal-Fired Power Plants Impacted by Major Court Ruling on Mercury
The prospects for 32 coal-fired power plants in 13 states have been shaken up in the wake of a February 8, 2008 federal appeals court ruling that requires each new coal-fired power plant in the U.S. to adopt stringent toxic air pollution control measures meeting the most rigorous standards under the Clean Air Act.
NRDC responds to Chairman Dingell's latest Climate Change White Paper
This letter responds to the House Committee on Energy and Commerce and its Subcommittee on Energy and Air Quality's third Climate Change White Paper, "Appropriate Roles for Different Levels of Government." This paper focuses on key factors that should be considered in determining what roles are appropriate for each level of government."
Synapse Study on AMP Ohio Coal Plant
This study outlines evaluated cost estimates regarding AMP-Ohio's proposed pulverized coal plant in Meigs County, OH. The study notes rising construction costs and offers new and realistic cost estimates on a number of the plant's budget lines.
Presentations from Carbon Capture and Sequestration Public Workshops
The materials provided directly below were presented on February 13, 2008 (Sacramento), and February 14, 2008 (Los Angeles), at workshops organized by NRDC and Environmental Defense and co-sponsored by the Air Resources Board, California Climate Action Registry, California Energy Commission, Global Change and Energy Project at Stanford University, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USC Center for Sustainable Cities, USC Energy Institute and the William C. Velasquez Institute.
- glo_08021301a.pdf Sally Benson, Executive Director, Global Climate and Energy Project, Stanford University: Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in Deep Geological Formations
- glo_08021301b.pdf Charles Christopher, CO2 Storage Technology Consultant, BP Retiree: Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage - an Industry View
- glo_08021301c.pdf James Dooley, Senior Staff Engineer, Joint Global Change Research Institute: Carbon Management and the Global Energy Technology Challenge
- glo_08021301d.pdf Julio Friedmann, Leader, Energy and Environment Directorate, Carbon Management Program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: Carbon Sequestration Risks and Hazards
- glo_08021301e.pdf David Hawkins, Director, Climate Center, Natural Resources Defense Council: Winning the Coal-Climate War
- glo_08021301f.pdf Howard Herzog, Principal Researcher, CCS Technologies Program, Laboratory for Energy and the Environment, Massachusetts Institute of Technology: Carbon Capture and Sequestration Economics
- glo_08021301g.pdf Susan Hovorka, Principal Investigator, Bureau of Economic Geology, University of Texas: Testing Geologic Sequestration of Carbon
- glo_08021301h.pdf Larry Myer, Technical Director, West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership, California Energy Commission: Geologic CO2 Storage Options for California
- glo_08021301i.pdf George Peridas, Science Fellow, Climate Center, Natural Resources Defense Council: Emerging Regulatory Frameworks for Carbon Capture and Sequestration
Testimony of David Doniger on the Oversight of EPA Administrator Johnson's Denial of Waiver for California's Global Warming Standards
Testimony of David Doniger, Policy Director, Climate Center, Natural Resources Defense Council, before the Environment and Public Works Committee, United States Senate on January 24, 2008.
Petition for Rulemaking Under the Clean Air Act to Reduce the Emission of Air Pollutants from Aircraft that Contribute to Global Climate Change
Petition sent to the EPA requesting that the agency issue proposed standards for greenhouse gas emissions from aircraft engines, December 31, 2007.
Contribution of the Energy Bill (H.R. 6) to Meeting the Global Warming Pollution Reductions Targets of S. 2191
In December of 2007, Congress signaled a directional shift by advancing two landmark bills. These proposals will help us tackle the climate challenge by adopting new ground rules which spur clean-technology innovation throughout the economy.
NRDC-WRI Collaborative Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions Under the Lieberman-Warner Bill
Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions under the Lieberman-Warner Bill (S. 2191), Full Committee Chairman's Mark with Boxer 1st Degree Amendment. Daniel Lashof, Climate Center Science Director, NRDC; John Larsen, Associate, Robert Heilmayr, Research Assistant, Climate and Energy Program, World Resources Institute. Tuesday December 4, 2007.
Global Warming Solutions Map From McKinsey and Company
A new global warming solutions map from McKinsey and Company shows that we know how to solve global warming while growing our economy.
Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions under the Lieberman-Warner Bill, as Amended in Subcommittee
Analysis of emission reductions under the Lieberman-Warner bill, Daniel Lashof, Climate Center Science Director, John Larsen, Associate; Robert Heilmayr, Research Assistant, Climate and Energy Program, World Resources Institute, Tuesday, November 13, 2007.
Testimony of David Hawkins on America's Climate Security Act of 2007
Testimony of David Hawkins, Director, Climate Center, Natural Resources Defense Council, before the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate, Hearing on America's Climate Security Act of 2007, S. 2191, November 13, 2007.
Testimony of Frances Beinecke on America's Climate Security Act
Testimony of Frances Beinecke, President, Natural Resources Defense Council, before the Subcommittee on Public and Consumer Solutions to Global Warming and Wildlife Protection, Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate, Hearing on America's Climate Security Act, October 24, 2007.
Coal in a Changing Climate
Presentation given at Western Governors' Association Clean Coal Workshop in Denver on October 23, 2007 by George Peridas outlining the need to act now to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, why coal is not clean due to its upstream impacts, and how we can act now to minimize CO2 emissions from new coal plants.
Fundamental Principles for Climate Legislation
Letter outlining the fundamental principles for climate legislation, endorsed by 16 environmental groups.
Protecting the Global Environment - 1985 Amicus Journal
Tom Stoel celebrates the victory achieved in the Montreal Protocol, but he emphasizes the need to 'finish the job' and implement more stringent CFC reductions.
- glo_07091203a.pdf 5.59 MB
Is the Stratosphere Half Empty or Half Full? - 1987 Amicus Journal
Tom Stoel, former director of the NRDC's international program, reviews international environmental issues of the era, including ozone depletion, and call global citizens to action.
- glo_07091202a.pdf 1.08 MB
Cooling the Chemical Summer - 1986 Amicus Journal
David Doniger reviews the status of the science and policy surrounding ozone depletion in 1986 and calls on the U.S. and the international community to implement strict regulations phasing out ozone depleting substances.
- glo_07091201a.pdf 3.15 MB
Voter Opinion Survey on Global Warming and Reducing Carbon Emissions, June 2007
Summary Findings for Congressional Districts of Six Moderate Members of the House Energy and Commerce Committee.
- glo_07071601a.pdf Summary
- glo_07071601b.pdf Arkansas 4th Congressional District Findings
- glo_07071601c.pdf Arkansas 4th Congressional District Slides
- glo_07071601d.pdf Georgia 12th Congressional District Findings
- glo_07071601e.pdf Georgia 12th Congressional District Slides
- glo_07071601f.pdf Louisiana 3rd Congressional District Findings
- glo_07071601g.pdf Louisiana 3rd Congressional District Slides
- glo_07071601h.pdf Pennsylvania 14th Congressional District Findings
- glo_07071601i.pdf Pennsylvania 14th Congressional District Slides
- glo_07071601j.pdf Texas 29th Congressional District Findings
- glo_07071601k.pdf Texas 29th Congressional District Slides
- glo_07071601l.pdf Utah 2nd Congressional District Findings
- glo_07071601m.pdf Utah 2nd Congressional District Slides
Letter to Stanford University Regarding ExxonMobil Funding
A letter to Stanford University regarding ExxonMobil funding and global warming from Frances Beinecke.
Testimony on Coal Gasification
Testimony of Antonia Herzog, Staff Scientist, Climate Center, before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate on May 24, 2007.
Testimony on Boucher Discussion Draft
Statement of Daniel A. Lashof, NRDC's Climate Center Science Director, before the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives on May 24, 2007.
Statement on Implementation of the Renewable Fuels Standard
Statement of Daniel A. Lashof, NRDC's Climate Center Science Director, before the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives on May 8, 2007.
Testimony on the Implications of the Supreme Court's Decision Regarding EPA's Authorities with Respect to Greenhouse Gases Under the Clean Air Act
Testimony of David Doniger, NRDC's Policy Director and Senior Attorney, before the Committee on Environment and Public Works on April 24, 2007.
Testimony on S. 731 and S. 962: Carbon Capture and Sequestration
Testimony of David G. Hawkins, NRDC's Climate Center Director, before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, Unites States Senate on April 16, 2007.
Bioenergy Feedstock Guiding Principles
Coalition letter to senators urging support for sustainably produced bioenergy and outlining a set of guiding principles to provide the basis for environmental performance standards.
Testimony on S.987, the Biofuels for Energy Security and Transportation Act of 2007
Testimony of Daniel A. Lashof, NRDC's Climate Center Science Director, before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resource, United States Senate on April 12, 2007.
Comments on Proposed Rule to List the Polar Bear as a Threatened Species
NRDC comments submitted to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on its proposal to list the polar bear as a threatened species.
- glo_07040901a.pdf 1.37 MB
Statement on MIT's "Future of Coal" Report
Statement of Daniel A. Lashof, NRDC's Climate Center Science Director, submitted to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resource, United States Senate on March 22, 2007
Global Warming Legislation and a Cap-and-Trade Program
NRDC's response to questions from the Subcommittee on Energy and Air Quality of the House of Representatives on legislation to curb global warming.
Testimony on Carbon Capture and Sequestration
Testimony of David G. Hawkins, NRDC's Climate Center Director, before the Subcommittee on Energy and Air Quality, Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives on March 6th, 2007.
Testimony on U.S. 10-Year Energy Research and Development Outlook
Testimony of David G. Hawkins, NRDC's Climate Center Director, before the Subcommittee on Energy and Water Development, Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives on February 28th, 2007.
Statement on the Energy Information Administration's Analysis of Chairman Bingaman's Greenhouse Gas Cap-and-Trade Discussion Draft Proposal
Statement of Daniel A. Lashof, NRDC's Climate Center Science Director, before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resource on January 24, 2007.
A Call for Action: Consensus Principles and Recommendations from the U.S. Climate Action Partnership
In January 2007, the USCAP coalition, an unprecedented partnership of leading environmental groups and major businesses, issued a call for strong federal legislation to stop, slow and reverse global warming. This document lists the founding members of the coalition and outlines the principles and goals recommended by the group for potential legislation.
Power to Save: An Alternative Path to Meet Electric Needs in Texas
Produced by Optimal Energy, Inc. and commissioned by NRDC and Ceres, this report finds that promoting energy efficiency could meet Texas' electricity needs more reliably and at a lower cost than building new power plants.
An Action Plan to Reduce U.S. Global Warming Pollution
A detailed plan to reduce U.S. carbon dioxide emissions by 60 percent in the next 50 years.
Rebalancing the Carbon Cycle
Testimony submitted by Daniel A. Lashof, science director of NRDC's climate center, to the Subcommittee on Energy and Resources of the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Government Reform, September 27, 2006
Testimony of David D. Doniger, NRDC Climate Center Policy Director, on the Asia Pacific Partnership
Testimony before the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate, September 20,2006.
A State Climate Plan for Florida: A Roadmap to Carbon Emissions Reductions
Florida must take action now to both meet the energy needs of its growing population and to address global warming pollution.
Massachusetts v. EPA, Amicus Briefs
Brief filed by NRDC and other petitioners on August 31, 2006 in the case Massachusetts v. EPA, to determine whether the EPA has the authority to regulate carbon dioxide from motor vehicles.
- glo_06083101a.pdf Brief for the Petitioners
- glo_06083101b.pdf The Alaska Inter-tribal Council, Council of Athabascan Tribal Governments and Resisting Environmental Destruction on Indigenous Lands
- glo_06083101c.pdf Madeleine K. Albright
- glo_06083101d.pdf Arizona, Iowa, Maryland, Minnesota and Wisconsin
- glo_06083101e.pdf Aspen Skiiing Company
- glo_06083101f.pdf Calpine Corporation
- glo_06083101g.pdf Climate Scientists
- glo_06083101h.pdf U.S. Conference of Mayors, National Association of Counties, International Municipal Lawyers Association, the City of Seattle, the City of Albuquerque, the City of Burlington, and the City and County of San Francisco
- glo_06083101i.pdf State of Delaware
- glo_06083101j.pdf Entergy Corporation
- glo_06083101k.pdf Former EPA Administrators Carol M. Browner, William K. Reilly, Douglas M. Costle and Russell E. Train
- glo_06083101l.pdf National Council of the Churches of Christ in the U.S.A., Church World Service and National Catholic Rural Life Conference
- glo_06083101m.pdf North Coast Rivers Alliance, Desert Protection Society, Westside Association to Save Agriculture, California Sportfishing Protection Alliance, Save Medicine Lake Coalition, Klamath Forest Alliance, San Joaquin Audubon Society and North Cascades Conservation Council
- glo_06083101n.pdf Ocean and Coastal Conservation Interests
- glo_06083101o.pdf Wildlife Conservation Interests
Coal Liquefaction and Gasification
Testimony submitted by David Hawkins, director of NRDC's climate center, to the U.S. Senate Committee on
Energy and Natural Resources, April 24, 2006
A Reader's Guide to the National Coal Council Report
NRDC's analysis of the March 22, 2006, National Coal Council report called "Coal, America's Energy Future." Executives from Peabody Energy, the country's largest coal producer, chaired the study and the work group that wrote the report.
Comments on "Design Elements of a Mandatory Market-Based Greenhouse Gas Regulatory System"
Submitted by NRDC's David Doniger to the Senate Energy Committee on March 13, 2006 (as revised March 14, 2006)
Solving Global Warming and Oil Dependence Together
Presented by David Hawkins, director of NRDC's climate center, at a congressional briefing, March 8, 2006
- glo_06031001a.pdf 4.01 MB
Supplemental Comments on Standards of Performance for Steam Generating Units
Submitted by David Doniger to the Environmental Protection Agency, 70 Fed. Reg. 9706, Feb. 28, 2005, Docket No. OAR 2005-0031
Taming the Climate Dragon
Presented by David Hawkins, director of NRDC's climate center, at E2 EcoSalon, February 23, 2006: "Global Warming: Where Do We Go from Here?"
- glo_06022301a.pdf 9.34 MB
Policies to Promote Carbon-less Energy Systems
Delivered on September 6, 2004, at the 7th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, Vancouver, Canada, by David Hawkins, director of NRDC's climate center.